The interior of the Akal Takht

Sikh Philosophy

Sikh Philosophy The basic belief in Sikhism is that life is not sinful in its origin, but having emanated from a pure source, the True One abides in all. Not only does all Sikh philosophy, but the whole of Sikh history and character flows from this principle. Sikhism, the youngest of...

Jainism and Sikhism

Jainism and Sikhism

Jainism and Sikhism Both Jainism and Sikhism are faiths native to the Indian subcontinent. Sikhism rejected the authority of the Vedas and created independent textual traditions based on the words and examples of their early teachers, eventually evolving entirely new ways for interacting with the lay community. History Main article: Indian religions Jainism is the oldest living sramana tradition in India....

The Udasi Sikhs have been one of the sects of Sikhism that accept murti in temples, unlike the Khalsa Sikhs. Above: an Udasi shrine in Nepal with images.

Idolatry in Sikhism

Idolatry in Sikhism Sikhism prohibits idolatry, in accordance with mainstream Khalsa norms and the teachings of the Sikh Gurus, a position that has been accepted as orthodox. Growing Sikh popular discontent with Gurdwara administration and practices during the 1800s, revivalist movements in the mid-1800s who opposed idolatry like the Nirankaris (who strongly opposed the practice,...

Sikhs in London protest against Indian government actions

Sikhs

Sikhs Sikhs (ਸਿੱਖ, sikkh) are people associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century, in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The term Sikh has its origin in the words शिष्य (śiṣya), meaning a “disciple” or a “student”. According to Article...

An early 19th-century Dasam Granth manuscript frontispiece (British Library MS Or.6298)

Dasam Granth

Dasam Granth The Dasam Granth (ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ, lit. “the Book of the Tenth Guru”), also called the Dasven Pādśāh kā Graṅth, (ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ), is a holy book in Sikhism with compositions attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It is a controversial religious text considered to be the second scripture by some Sikhs, and of disputed authority by other Sikhs. The standard edition...

A folio from an early 19th-century manuscript copy of the Guru Granth Sahib (Schoyen Collection Norway)

Sikh Scriptures

Sikh Scriptures There are two primary sources of Sikh Scriptures: the Gurū Granth Sāhib and the Dasam Granth. The Gurū Granth Sāhib may be referred to as the Ādi Granth—literally, The First Volume—and the two terms are often used synonymously. Here, however, the Ādi Granth refers to the version of...

The First Anglo-Sikh War, 1845-46.

History of Sikhism

History of Sikhism The history of Sikhism started with Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He was the first Guru of the fifteenth century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The religious practices were formalised by Guru Gobind Singh Ji on 13 April 1699. The latter baptised five persons...

Ik Onkar

Ik Onkar

Ik Onkar Ik Onkar or Ek Onkar (ੴ, ਇੱਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ is the symbol that represents the one supreme reality and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy. Ik Onkar has a prominent position at the head of the Mul Mantar and the opening words of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Ik (ਇੱਕ) means one and only...

Jung Khalsa warriors playing Gatka

Khalistan Movement

Khalistan Movement The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement seeking to create a separate country called Khalistān (“The Land of the Khalsa“) in the Punjab region as a homeland for Sikhs. The proposed country would consist of both the Punjab, India along with Punjab, Pakistan and include parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and Sindh in Pakistan; as well as Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and parts of Jammu and...

Kanga, Kara and Kirpan – three of the five Ks

The Five Ks

The Five Ks In Sikhism, the Five Ks (ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ Pañj Kakār) are five items that Guru Gobind Singh commanded Khalsa Sikhs to wear at all times in 1699. They are: Kesh (uncut hair), Kangha (a wooden comb for the hair), Kara (an iron bracelet), Kachera (100% cotton tieable undergarment (not an elastic one)) and Kirpan (an iron dagger large enough to defend...

Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province

Buddhism in Vietnam

Buddhism in Vietnam Buddhism in Vietnam or Vietnamese Buddhism (Đạo Phật or Phật Giáo), as practised by the ethnic Vietnamese, is mainly of the Mahayana tradition. Buddhism may have first come to Vietnam as early as the 3rd or 2nd century BCE from the Indian subcontinent or from China in the 1st or 2nd century CE. Vietnamese Buddhism has had a syncretic relationship...

Bridge River Japan Shinto Boats Travel Landmark

State Shinto

State Shinto State Shintō (国家神道 or 國家神道, Kokka Shintō) describes Imperial Japan‘s ideological use of the native folk traditions of Shintoism, . The state strongly encouraged Shinto practices to emphasize the Emperor as a divine being, which was exercised through control of shrine finances and training regimes for priests. The State Shinto ideology emerged at the...

Page from a copy of the Nihon Shoki, early Heian period

Nihon Shoki

Nihon Shoki The Nihon Shoki (日本書紀), sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is also called the Nihongi (日本紀, “Japanese Chronicles”). It is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, and has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most...

Susanoo and Orochi in Izumo-ryū kagura

Kagura

Kagura Kagura (神楽 (かぐら), “god-entertainment”) is a specific type of Shinto ritual ceremonial dance. Once strictly a ceremonial art derived from kami’gakari (神懸 (かみがかり), “oracular divinification”), kagura has evolved in many directions over the span of more than a millennium. Today, it is very much a living tradition, with rituals tied to the rhythms of the agricultural calendar,...

Painting with scenes from The Twenty-four Cases of Filial Piety. Kano Motonobu, 1550

Filial Piety

Filial Piety In Confucian, Chinese Buddhist and Taoist ethics, filial piety (孝, xiào) is a virtue of respect for one’s parents, elders, and ancestors. The Confucian Classic of Filial Piety, thought to be written around the Qin–Han period, has historically been the authoritative source on the Confucian tenet of filial piety. The book, a purported dialogue between Confucius and his student...

Four Books and Five Classics

Four Books and Five Classics

Four Books and Five Classics The Four Books and Five Classics (四書五經; Sìshū Wǔjīng) are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC. Four Books The Four Books (四書; Sìshū) are Chinese classic texts illustrating the core value and belief systems in Confucianism. They were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song dynasty to serve as general introduction to Confucian thought,...

Torii Shrine Sea Itsukushima Shinto Shrine God

Shinto Sects and Schools

Shinto Sects and Schools Shinto (神道, shintō), the folk religion of Japan, developed a diversity of schools and sects, outbranching from the original Ko-Shintō (ancient Shintō) since Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the sixth century. Early period schools and groups The main Shinto schools with traditions traceable to early periods, according to authoritative published...

Headquarters of Reiyū-kai.

Japanese New Religions

Japanese New Religions Japanese new religions are new religious movements established in Japan. In Japanese, they are called shinshūkyō (新宗教) or shinkō shūkyō (新興宗教). Japanese scholars classify all religious organizations founded since the middle of the 19th century as “new religions”; thus, the term refers to a great diversity and number of organizations. Most came into being in the...

Muay Thai Fight Fighter Warrior Thai Boxing

Neijia

Neijia Neijia (内家) is a term in Chinese martial arts, grouping those styles that practice neijing, usually translated as internal martial arts, occupied with spiritual, mental or qi-related aspects, as opposed to an “external” approach focused on physiological aspects. The distinction dates to the 17th century, but its modern application is due to...